Why Should I Calculate OEE Manually?

OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) is a valuable KPI for how well machines on the plant floor are being utilized. (More information on what OEE is can be found in the Intro to IoT blog post) It is often thought to be a complicated value to calculate, and sometimes it can be. However, it can be greatly simplified. Given the value and the potential simplicity it is recommended that operations staff including their supervisors and managers should know how the calculation works, what OEE is, and how to use it effectively.

Why is OEE Valuable?

OEE has a direct correlation to the revenue the machine provides the manufacturer. If the machine isn’t utilized well, i.e., if it’s down or if it’s producing poor quality parts that cannot be sent to a customer, then the machine isn’t generating as much revenue as it otherwise would.

It’s also valuable because breaking the value down into is parts can help hone in on the cause of issues with a machine. It is made up of three separate percentage values: Availability, Performance, and Quality. One can look at the component values and determine where to start their analysis to find issues with the machine.

Why Calculate Manually

Why should operators and related staff calculate OEE manually? Two reasons:

  1. To understand what OEE really means and what it’s made up of, and
  2. To get a solution calculating OEE in place when an automation solution isn’t available.

Understanding OEE: One can only understand another person’s perspective when they’ve walked a mile in their shoes. In the same way a person can only understand a concept once they’ve recreated it themselves and worked with it. The nice thing is that OEE, or at least some parts of it, can be calculated easily on paper.

Automation isn’t available: In many manufacturing companies OEE will likely be calculated automatically by various systems such as IoT software platforms (these are the solutions we often implement). These solutions are becoming more predominant as companies look for more ways to pull valuable data from their machines to complete…all under the moniker of Smart Manufacturing. However, some companies may want to start utilizing OEE before budgets can be made available for these solutions. So, why not start when pen and paper!?

How to Calculate Manually

A deeper discussion of the calculation of OEE can be found in this How OEE is Calculated blog post. So we won’t cover the details here.

To calculate OEE all you need is pen, paper, maybe a clipboard, and diligent effort to record and calculate the data regularly. It is also helpful to have Excel available. Don’t need anything more fancy than that.

You can start with Availability, one of the components of OEE. Put the paper, pen, and clipboard close to the machine to measure. Then every house have users mark what happened with that computer regarding it’s availability: If it was up and running at normal speed mark a “G” for Green (can include planned downtime if appropriate). If the machine experienced some setup or adjustment time during that hour, mark a “Y” for Yellow. If the machine was down, mark “R” for Red. You could also use colors pens/markers and/or whiteboard.

Then count the total number of G’s, Y’s, R’s. Subtract the total number of Y’s and R’s from the total number of G’s to get the number of hours the machine was available to run. Count the total number of hours over all on the paper no matter the condition for the scheduled operating time. Then divide available time by the scheduled operating time and you get the Availability Rate % value.

Do this for each day, record the results in Excel, maybe even create a simple chart, and you’ll start to see a trend for where the OA (Overall Availability) for the machine is. If you do this for multiple machines you can then get some solid, objective data on the status of the various machines, and which might need some attention.

You can also repeat this process recording similar data for Performance and Quality.

How is OEE Calculated?

OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) provides an indication for how effectively machines are utilized on a manufacturing plant floor. It’s valuable for identifying and removing production constraints and for driving up revenue earned by every machine.

The calculation has some mysticism surrounding the complexity of it’s calculation. We’ll simplify the calculation to a level where the reader can immediately start calculating it by hand.

How to Calculate OEE

OEE for any machine is made up of 3 parts multiplied together: Availability (up-time) x Performance (production speed) x Quality (widgets produced correctly first time). Below is a brief explanation of each part and how it’s calculated.

Availability Rate

Machine’s up-time, the percentage it is ready to product products and is working properly, excluding changeover and setup time.

Formula: (Scheduled Operating Time – Downtime) / Scheduled Operating Time

Note that Scheduled Operating Time is not “total time”. Availability refers to when the machine could be running based on when it is needed or planned to run. There could be reasons it won’t run when it is needed (i.e., setup, breakdown) and this calculation must account for those downtime reasons.

Performance Rate

The rate a machine actually produces products relative to it’s best known or standard production rate.

Formula: Actual Output / Standard Output

Note it’s critical to come to terms at your plant for what the standard production rate is for your equipment. It’s best not to use the specified or design production rate by the vendor of the product. In this case if the machine were running faster than the design production rate and you were using the designed production rate this could mask quality or availability issues in the OEE calculation.

It’s also worth noting that the production rate will highlight losses due to idling, slowdowns and minor stoppages.

Quality Rate

The rate the machine outputs good parts.

Formula: Right First-Time Output / Actual Output

Note that products produced by the machine which require rework or any sort of adjustments, along with scrapped products, are not counted as quality product.


Now let’s run a quick example calculation for one shift:


Scheduled Operating Time: shift 8 hrs or 480 mins, 20 mins planned downtime, 0 mins breaks; total 460 mins

Downtime: breakdowns 30 mins, setups and adjustments 15 mins, minor stoppages 15 minutes; total 60 mins

Available time = Scheduled time – Downtime = 460 – 60 = 400 mins

Availability rate = (Scheduled Operating Time – Downtime) / Scheduled Operating Time = (460 – 60) / 460 = 87%


Actual Output: 400 parts or 1 part/min for 400 mins of Available time

Standard Output: 800 parts or 1/2 part/min for 400 mins of Available time

Performance rate = Actual Output / Standard Output = 400 / 800 = 50%


Right First-Time Output: 400 parts – 20 defective parts = 380 parts

Actual Output: 400 parts

Right First-Time Output / Actual Output = 380 / 400 = 95%

OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality = 87% x 50% x 95% = 41%

Additional Considerations

One must keep in mind that OEE is not a value that can be used to compare performance of many different machines, different production lines, or even less so various plants. As you can see above, there is a lot of uniqueness built into the calculation for each machine. Each machine is unique for the schedule required of it, it’s inherent production rate (by it’s design) and other factors. Therefore, OEE is really only meant to be used as a metric to improve the performance of each individual machine. Monitor the OEE value for the machine, break it down into it’s component pieces, and hone in on the problem, fix, and then watch OEE to see if it improves after the fix.

Even if the above is true, OEE can be used to compare machines and lines, but only if they are used in similar fashion and have similar demands.

Comparison of OEE across different lines and plant can be done but should only be done 1) when using an average OEE value, and 2) with the understanding the value will not be highly accurate.